This kind of error usually means the program is built against more than one version of runtime libraries. This can happen if different parts of the program, perhaps its dependencies, were built by different versions of Visual Studio. Note that Visual Studio service packs, and sometimes even Windows security updates can bump up the version of runtime libraries.
So Petr, can you try rebuilding dependencies?
For users, a workaround that should work is installing Visual Studio 2008 Redistributable package from Microsoft.
When Scan Tailor asks you to enter DPIs manually, never enter arbitrary values. The video tutorial shows how to estimate the real DPI.